Aguilar Camín, Héctor (coauthor), A Future for Mexico, 14–15
Althusser, Louis, 173
American Dream: in Tijuana, 97, 107, 111
amparo (protection), in Mexico City, 174–75n6
anarchists, 47
Anderson, Benedict, 125
Anglo-America, 58
Anglos, 11, 16. See also United States
anomie, in Tijuana, 102–3
Anzaldúa, Gloria, 4
Apter, Andrew, 106–7
Apter, Emily, 72, 183
aristocracy, 104, 106. See also gente decente

assassin, as hero, 152
authenticity: anxiety over, 173; vs. mimesis, in Tijuana, 110. See also

citizen; citizenship; identification

autodefensa (community policing), 151
Azuela, Mariano, 149n11

 

Baja California, 18, 107, 148
Bakhtin, M. M., 117 and n10
barda (fence): metaphor for Tijuana’s social boundaries, 111; pejorative word

for "border," 111

baseball: popular among Tijuana’s clase media, 47. See also soccer; South
Benveniste, Émile, 5n6, 22, 123
Bhabha, Homi, 14, 15
border (frontera): ambivalence and, 15; creates "illegal alien," 2, 11; creation by

United States, 13; crossing, as rite of passage, 135; as egalitarian, 44; elicits
demographic boundaries, 12, 13, 35, 40, 43–44 and n22, 46, 132–35; and exclusions,
8, 10–11, 22, 112; as fetish, 13–19, 22, 49; influence on Mexican society, 4;
and the Law, 49; and limits, 221-22; as the Line, 111, 112; meanings of, viii; as metaphor,
4, 15, 82, 84; as Mexico, 12; parallels with country club, 111; quotidien crossing
of, 115; radicalizes, 12; violence at, 174–75; as Wall and Port, 173. See also
clase media; elitism; fetish; Line, the; Tijuana; visa(s)

Border Crossing Card, US ("laser visa"), 133; as status symbol, 7–8, 33.

See also visa(s)

boundaries, social, 4. See also clase media; elitism; pueblo

Bourdieu, Pierre, 161, 162
bourgeoisie: "easy restraint" of, 162; vs. aristocracy, 106; in eighteenth-century

Europe, 104; in Habermas’s schema, 68 and Table 2.1, 69; and identity, 173;
not clase media, 110. See also clase media

bribery, petty: and clase media, 154–57, 177; and the pueblo, 157–60
business card (tarjeta de presentación): as defense, 187; as fetish, 185–86; as pass,

184–90 and fig. 6.2; as proof of me consta, 189; visa as, 189, 190. See also visa(s)

 

Calderón, Felipe, 149, 189n18
caminando para conocer (walking to learn/experience), 122, 124–25,

127, 132, 136

Canetti, Elias, 124 and n20, 126n22
Casa del Migrante (shelter), ix
Castaneda, Carlos, 122–23
Castañeda, Jorge (coauthor): A Future for Mexico, 14–15
Castillo Luna, Dr., 64–66
chronotope, of hearsay public, 117–23
Chu, Julie, 162n2
citationality, fear of, 71
citizen(s): as "somebodies," 175–76; responsibilities of, 154–56, 180–81
citizenship, 177; Mexican, opposed to right of crossing, 46, 175; U.S.,

worth more than Mexican, 175, 177

ciudadano (citizen), meaning of, 177. See also citizen(s); citizenship
clase media (middle class), 2–3 and n4, 10, 13–14, 52, 94, 97, 101, 136, 148;

as "floating," 106; as avatar of state of the nation, 146, 148; as conservative, 110;
dangers within, 109; Dara as part of, 89–90, 97; defined, 106, 110, 145; devaluation of,
147–48; freeholders anticipated, 99; I-ness of, 7, 106, 107, 173 (see also
we); Inés as part of, 94–95, 97, 105, 106; and liberal Law, 72; marginal status
of Inés and Dara within, 112; marginalized, 146; me consta of, 161;
as new elite, 147; not a bourgeoisie, 110; petty bribery and, 154–57; promise of, 103, 109,
111, 148 (for PAN); and the pueblo, 6, 9, 23, 73, 144–49, 159–60; —, before the
Law, 143–60; self-concept of, 7, 148; shifting ground of, 105–6; in United
States, 99. See also middle class; poor people; pueblo

clase media alta (upper middle class), 88. See also clase media; elitism; Tijuana
clase obrera (working class), 88. See also pueblo; Tijuana
classism, 7–8n9, 10, 14. See also clase media; illegal aliens; racism;"us" vs. "them" 

Cody, Francis, 21
Cold War, 144, 145
colonias (working-class districts), 90, 181. See also workplace
colonias populares (lower-class districts), 10, 94n9, 102 and n23, 180.

See also poor people; pueblo; Tijuana

Comaroff, Jean, 144 and n3
Comaroff, John, 144 and n3
contraband, 102
Corona del Rosal, Alfonso, 151
corruption, in Mexico, 149–50; among police, 155–56
Cota, Jaime, 47–48
country club: exclusion from, 133–34; passing in, 127–31. See also under Tijuana
credencial (credential), business card as, 188–89
"Culture of Legality," 144n3

 

Dara (daughter of Inés): authoritative on immigration, 171–72, 174; -- on Tijuana, 53;

— on United States, 171–72; conversation with, 87; on distorted values, 158;
fascination with Tijuana, 108–10; flirts with border officer, 171–73; on gente decente,

104, 106, 114; SENTRI interview of, 171–72, 179; as tour guide of Tijuana, 88–93

and n3; on upward mobility in Tijuana, 99–101, 103. See also Inés; mobility, upward; Tijuana

De León, Jason, 8
death: hearsay public on, 23; risk of, for illegal aliens, 3–4, 141
debate, rational: and hearsay, 160; and liberal publicity, 68–74, 98. See also democracy
Declaration of Independence, U.S.: us vs. them in, 37, 47, 77
defense (defensa): way of life for poor people, 183. See also poor people
democracy, 44n23, 60; Frederick Jackson Turner on, 98–99; freeholders

anticipate, 99; Tijuana and, 107, 148

demonstration: defined, 43–45 and n23; police presence at, 42, 44.

See also Immigrants’ Rights Day(s)

demos (the people): as outsiders, 66–67; vis-à-vis demonstrations, 44.

 See also pueblo

deportation: to Mexico, 82 and n11, 122, 177
Derrida, Jacques, 18, 48–51, 71n21, 120n14, 123 and n8
dialogue, face-to-face, 134–35; importance of, 21; between opponents at May 1
         demonstration, 43–44 and n22; with picaresque entrepreneur, 114-17.

See also Dara; Inés;

Díaz Ordaz, Gustavo, 151
dicen (they say), 58–59, 124n20, 125, 127, 129, 135–36. See also third person
disclaimer. See gossip
Dorotea, 11n17, 180–82, 187; as responsible citizen, 180–81 and n11
dress (sartorial): for visa interview, 163–64, 165. See also visa(s)
drug traffic, 111–12 and n33; and obtaining visa, 166; in Tijuana, 91 and n4,

109–10 and n31

Durazo Moreno, Arturo: and José González, 152–53

 

earwitness, 123–27
Edith, viii, 75, 80, 96, 187n16; on getting visa, 164; as responsible citizen, 156, 159; social

status of, 82. See also Inés

Eduardo (grandson of Dorotea), 122, 157–58, 184, 187; on Dorotea’s religiosity, 182;

grandfather of, 177. See also Dorotea

education: atrophy of, in Tijuana, 147–48; as status symbol, 66, 152. See also elitism
Eiss, Paul, 148, 151
Elias, Norbert: The Civilizing Process, 104
elites: in Mexico, 126; pueblo as new, 147; in Tijuana, 118, 127–28, 129–31: —,

photography contest judges as, 65–67, 69; —, rejection from, 132; United States as, 126

elitism: Law and, 77; symbols of, 82, 83–85, 92, 103, 104–5, 152; in Tijuana, 65–66, 93,

103, 110–11, 133–34. —, expressed by salaries, 81. See also elites; Mason(s);

money; Tijuana;

emigrados ("forgiven" illegal immigrants), 133 and n33. See also immigrants, illegal;
         immigrants, undocumented
equality: among classes (in Inés’s childhood), 93–94 and n9; Dara and Inés on, 104;

in debate, 78–79; table as metaphor for, 79; between United States and Mexico, 14–16.
See also classism; elitism; racism

 

façade, visa interview as, 163. See also visa(s)
factory, social structure of, 75–85
failure, to get visa, 164–66. See also visa(s)
Fanon, Frantz, 14
fetish: border as, 13–19; business card as, 185–86; clase media as, 97; Inés’s "I" as, 70–71;

the Law as, 49; Mexico as negative, 23; patron as, 179n9, 183, 185; rational debate as, 72;
saint as, 182–83; sticker as minor, 181–82; United States as, 167, 168; visa as,
81, 82, 140, 171–73. See also fetishism; status symbol; visa(s)

fetishism: of ID, 176n7, 179; of inclusion/exclusion, 51; of the Law, 144; and public

sphere, 19–24; of state, 179, 183; visa and, 173. See also fetish

first person (in grammar): vs. second person, 134; vs. third person, 22, 127, 135–36. See
         also
I/I’s; third person; we 
fixity: social, lacking in Tijuana, 103; triggers disorder, 72
Foster, George, 182–84, 187
Foucault, Michel, 144n3
Fox, Vicente, 159 and n17, 181
fraud, 136; in credentials claimed (education), 106–7; electoral, in Tijuana, 73
freeholders: as bedrock of U.S. democracy (Turner), 98–99
Freud, Sigmund: on fetishes, 15 and n24, 16
Frontera (newspaper): on border, 111; on May 1 demonstration, 39–40, 41;

publishes "I Am of the Frontera (frontier)," 97–98

frontier (frontera): myth of, 97–101. See also democracy

 

gente decente (upper class/nobility of manners), 103–4; of Tijuana, 118. See also elitism
Gil (Inés’s son), 61–69, 70, 73, 95, 98, 188; Inés’s perspective on, 109
God, as real patron, 182, 183
Godson, Roy, 144n3
González González, José: Lo negro del Negro Durazo (The Blackness of

Black Durazo), 151–54

gossip (chisme): about "tijuanenses," 130; as anthropological questioning, 53–74; and

hearsay, 57n8, 61, 63, 126n22; refusal of, 61, 63; as repetition, 135. See also hearsay public

Great American Boycott: as confrontation between disparates, 43-44. See also

Immigrants’ Rights Day(s), 2006

gringos, 75–77 and n2, 82; interaction with Mexicans, 76–77, 80; as intermediators, 75–76;

and right of crossing, 46; stereotype of, 77

groupness, 6 and n7
Guerrillero, x–xii

 

Habermas, Jürgen, diagram of social reality, 68 and table 2.1, 69
hearsay public: chronotope of, 117–23; and earwitness, 124; and Inés’s "I," 70–72, 74;

pícaro and, 117; as pueblo, 8–9 and n10; and rational debate, 160; stories within, 126;
and third person, 22, 56–57, 58–59 ("dicen"), 124–26; as unreliable,
58; vindication of, 154; and we, 136. See also dicen; pueblo; third person

Hegel, Georg, 17
Heidegger, Martin, 126n22
here/there (binomial contrast), 120, 128n26
hero: assassin as, 152
 

I/I’s (pronoun): becomes "they," 121–22; as a citation, 71; of clase media, 7, 10, 11, 22,

106, 107, 159, 173 (see also we); —, and the state, 154–55; of Dara, 92,
108; earwitness lacks, 123; emptied, 126n23, 132; of expert vs. pícaro, 116–17, 132,
135; founding fathers as, 99; hollowing out of, 9; independent of location, 107–8,
188; of Inés, 53–74, 96 and n12, 108; many, within one person, 121; me consta as, 58,
124, 134, 152, 153, 156, 159; politician’s, 185; as status marker, 84, 115, 153; tijuanense,
101; vulnerability of, 59–60; and we’s, 4, 12, 21; of witness, 124; vs. you,
in dialogue, 134, 158. See also dialogue; me consta; subjectivity; we 

identification (ID): as defense, 187; as fetish, 179, 180; functions of, 187–88; lack of,

         among poor people, 175–76; limitations of, 184; "papers" as, 177–79;
         sticker as, 183–84; as valuable token, 184; visa as, 179. See also fetish; fetishism; visa(s)

identity: and passing, 2, 171–96; in visa interview, 162–63. See also visa(s)
illegal aliens, 2 and n3, 178; "hostile treatment" of, 16–17, 30; lives of devaluated, 8, 11;

         Mexican Americans mistaken for, 16; Mexicans stereotyped as, 14–15n25, 50, 174;

        "possible," 169, 173–74; rejection of, at border, 7–8n9, 15, 169; and United
        States-Mexico relations, 127. See also immigrants, undocumented
immigrants, undocumented, 100; "not Tijuana," 47; vs. documented, 132–34; opposition to,
      132–33; plight of, in United States, 50. See also illegal aliens
Immigrants' Rights Day(s), 2006: boycotts of, flyer announcing, 35–39, 40–41, 35,
      40–41n16; —, poll preceding, 39–41; demonstrations ("mega-marches"),
      logic of, 44–45; —, participants in, 41–42, 48; —, opponents of, 34–35, 39, 42–43, 45–46.
      See also border 
immigration. See border; Line, the; United States
Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986), 133
Indonesia: parallels with fate of Mexican pueblo: 150–51
Inés, x, 2, 29, 103; buys contraband, 102; on Gil’s exploits, 109; "I" of, 53–74, 178–79; life

story of, 93–97; —, dualities in, 93; me consta of, 155–56, 159, 177, 178; morality of,
156; on nouveau riche, 128–29; as panista, 149; and police, 3, 177–79; as responsible
citizen, 155–56. See also Dara; dialogue; Edith; I/I’s

ingeniero (engineer, professional job title): as status symbol, 77, 78. See also elitism
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 147
interview: for visa, 161–69. See also visa(s)

 

journalists. See press, the
Juárez, Ciudad, and Tijuana, 7n8, 18–19

 

Kafka, Franz, parable on legal barriers, 48–50
Katz, Friedrich, 99
Kenny, Michael, 182n13
Kerouac, Jack, On the Road, 150
Knight, Alan, 146, 147

 

La Chapu (wealthy district of Tijuana), 88, 89, 92, 109, 158. See also elitism
language: in book by José González González, 152; hypercorrect vs. vulgar,

114–17; as status marker, 84, 114, 160. See also metaphor; various pronouns

laser visa, 33–34 and n7, 75, 133, 172, 179; for Mexicans only, 50. See also Border

Crossing Card, U.S.; visa(s)

Latin America, history of liberalism in, 20
Law, the, 139, 160, 168, 179; as elitist, 73; liberal, restores order in Venezuela, 72; and the

Line, 48–52

lawlessness: defined, 151; in getting visa, 163; of pueblo, 158–59, 160; of

Tijuana, 159. See also visa(s)

Leal, Alejandra, 148
Leyva, María Elena, 54–57, 59–60, 63–64, 66
Leyva, Xicoténcatl, 54–56, 58–59, 63–64
liberalism: failure of, 24; in Latin America, 20–21. See also publicity, liberal
limits, 3-4; absence of, 211, 215, 219; border and, 3-4, 15, 17, 222, 250; ; of class and status,

2, 4; death as, 3, 228-30; of equality, 78-79; hearsay public and, 244-45;

of meaning, 223, 228, 230-33, 235, 237-39, 243, 247. See also border 

Line, the (Tijuana–San Diego), 29–32 and figs. 1.1, 1.2, 40: border as, 111; and the law,

48–52; legal crossing of as status symbol, 30, 34, 133–34; metaphorical, in workplace,
83–84; protestors want to demolish, 49; Tijuana as, 46, 51–52; to obtain visa,

167; two meanings of, 1. See also border; Line, the; visa(s)

lingua franca, 126n23
Lomnitz, Claudio, 70, 145n4, 146–47, 155
lynchings, in Mexico, 151. See also Law, the

 

malandro (criminal tough), as stereotype, 187 and n16, 189–90
management, in workplace, 75–85
Mason(s), 61 and n12, 66. See also elitism
mass media: coverage of May 1 demonstrations, 41; and face-to-face settings, 21; printed
           word in, 58. See also Frontera
Mauricio (Inés’s husband), 95–97
May 1 boycott, in Tijuana, 35. See also Immigrants’ Rights Day(s); May 1 demonstrations
May 1 demonstrations: in United States, 34–35. See also Immigrants’ Rights Day(s);

May 1 boycott

Mazzarella, William, 146
McCarthy, Cormac, 150
me consta (I vouch for it), 152, 153, 156, 159, 161: business card proves, 189; politician’s,

185; vs. se dice (it is said), 139, 154, 160. See also

metaphor: barda (fence) as, 111; border as, 4, 15, 82; table as, for equality, 79; wall as, 92, 110–12
Mexican Revolution, 2 and n4, 146–47, 180
Mexican-American war, 13, 15, 17. See also Mexico; United States
Mexico: "cheap labor" from, 134; border as, 12; corruption in, 149–50;

       economy in, 146; idea of, 23–24; income in, 10n15; as lagging behind United
       States, 14–15, 77; as "lawless," 149–54; as middle class, 148–49; middle class in, 145–46 (see also
       clase media); neoliberalism’s effect on, 72–73, 91, 147–49; Tijuana as, 118,
       119; Tijuana as separate from, 107; two public spheres in, 70, 78; violence in, 149,
       151. See also clase media; elitism; pueblo; Tijuana; United States

Mexico City: amparo (protection) in, 174–75n6; exposé set in, 152–54. See also Mexico
middle class: easily obtain visa, 169; meaning of, 145. See also clase media; visa(s)
migration: as caminando para conocer, 122 and n17; exposé set in, 152–54. See also border;

 illegal aliens; immigration, illegal; passing

mimesis: vs. authenticity, in Tijuana, 110
mimicry, in Mexico, 14–15 and n22, 17, 136
mobility, upward, 145; Dorotea aims at, 180–82 and n11 (see also Dorotea);

exposé set in, 91, 92–93 and n7, 96, 101–2, 129, 152–54, 164, 165, 180–82; in

Tijuana, 89. See also elitism; elites; passing; Tijuana

money, 127–28; Inés and Dara on, 105, 128–29; as status symbol (Elias, Weber), 104–5; —,
          fails to deliver, 111 and n33
morality: Edith’s, 84–85, 156; Inés’s, 73, 155–56
movement against insecurity, x
Mr. L, xi–xi
Muir, Sarah, 149n11
myth: of frontier, 97–101, 107; of U.S. middle class, 99. See also clase media; United States

 

narrative(s), 6; of children's deaths, 223-47; corridos showcase, 199-200; death as aim of,

226, 228-29; Inés’s, 53-74, 116; Mrs. E's, 223-47. See also hearsay public

National Strategy Information Center (NSIC), 144n3
neoliberalism, effect on Mexico’s economy, 72–73, 91
New Mexico, 16 and n26
newspapers, 56, 60. See also Frontera (newspaper); mass media
Nigeria: origins of fraud in, 106–7, 108
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 147

 

palanca (mediator), 182–83, 188
parallelism, 121. See also language
Partido Acción Nacional (PAN), 148–50, 181
Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD) (Party of the Democratic Revolution), 149
Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Institutional Revolutionary Party), 147–49
passing: defines true pueblo, 11; earwitness and, 124; forms dualities, 85, 110; and identity,

2, 136; liberal publicity and, 85; meaning of, 3; of poor people vs. clase media, 189–90;
power and, 167,  179; and upward mobility, 89–90, 91, 110–11, 127–31. See also border;

visa(s)

passport, U.S., 189n19
patrons: as fetishes, 179n9, 183, 185, 188 (see also fetish; fetishism); necessity of, 184,

190; relations with client, 180, 181–84 and n13, 185; as sources of power, 183: --
security, 183, 190

Paz, Octavio, 8n10
photography: exhibit/competition, 61–62, 64–68; —. as political ritual, 69; as hobby,

47, 48, 98; of San Ysidro, 31, figs. 1.1 and 1.2

police, in Mexico: business card wards off, 187; confession of killings by, 151–54;

as corrupt, 155–56; as delinquents, 153–54; discriminate against lower classes, 11,
156–58 and n15, 174; distorted self-concept of, 158; extortion practices of,
156–57; in Habermas’s scheme, 68, table 2.1; harassment by, 187 and n17;
Inés deals with, 3, 177–79; as pueblo, 158, 177; in Tijuana, 42, 177; violence of, at border,
174–75. See also border; violence; visa(s)

politics: campaigns for office, 184–87; partisan, x; Tijuanese, 58, 59. See also individual names
poll (taken by activists): as genre, 39
poor people, 10, 11n18, 129; as "nobodies," 175–76, 178; conflated with migrants,

174; criminalization of, 158–59; lack official IDs, 10; stereotype of, 187; target of police
extortion, 156–57; victimization of, 157–59, 173. See also pueblo

ports of entry, into Tijuana. See San Ysidro
Povinelli, Elizabeth, 68
power, patron and, 183. See also fetish; fetishism; patrons
Preciado (Tijuanese old family), 118
prejudice(s). See classism; poor people; pueblo; racism
press, the: indiscretion of, 59–60. See also hearsay public; mass media
(…) PRI, 147, 150
privacy, from mass media, 59–60
pronouns: third person (see also third person), 9, 22; we and they, 22. See also language;

individual pronouns

public sphere: and fetishism, 19–24; in Habermas’s schema, 68, table 2.1
publicity, liberal: contradictions of, 75–86; and demographic dualities, 82 (see also
         clase media; elitism; Tijuana); in Latin America, 19–20, 21, 22; and "middleness," 97;

         and passing, 85; as "performative dispensation," 68–69; and rational debate, 

         68–74, 98. See also liberalism

publics: two, in Tijuana, 6–7, 9–10, 11, 12, 160.; and we’s, 5–6, 20. See also clase media;

 pueblo; we

pueblo (the people), 2–3 and n4, 20; and clase media, 6, 9, 23, 144–49, 159–60; —, before

the Law, 143–60; criminalization of, 158–59; displaced, 148; González as one of, 153,
154; meaning of term, 151; reflect state of the nation, 146; target of police extortion,
156–57; victimization of, 157–59; "we" of, 153–54. See also clase media; poor people

 

race, hierarchies of, 2. See also racism
racism, 10, 14 and n23; and illegal aliens, 7–8n9; and skin color, 64–65. See also clase media;

          classism; illegal aliens

Rafael, Vicente, 23, 126 and n22, 136, 143
Ramos, Samuel, 146
Rancière, Jacques, 43–44, 66
Redfield, Robert, 13–15, 19
reinvention, of self: to get visa, 163–64
Roble (Tijuanese old family), 55, 118
Rodríguez (Tijuanese old family), 118
Ruffo, Ernesto Appel, 107, 110
Rulfo, Juan, 15
rumor(s), 136, 151; as agent of wishfulness, 126; as repetition, 135

 

Salazar, Susana, 54–60, 66n15
Salinas, Carlos, 54
San Diego (California), 18–19
San Diego Padres: visa holders only can attend games of, 47
San Ysidro: May 1 demonstration targets, 41; photographs of, 31, figs. 1.1 and 1.2; as port
      of entry, 2, 29
Sánchez, Rafael, 72–73, 107, 110
se dice (it is said), 153: vs. me consta, 139, 154, 160. See also
Secure Electronic Network for Travelers’ Rapid Inspection (SENTRI), 171–72. See also

visa(s)

security: patrons as source of, 183
Siegel, James, 112, 134, 150, 151
Silverstein, Michael, 6
soccer: mirrors Tijuanese society, 46–48; popular in South, 47
social climbing. See mobility, upward; Tijuana
songs, 140–41
Sonoran Desert, as "killing machine," 8, 23. See also illegal aliens
South, the (of Mexico): opposed to Tijuana ("North"), 18, 19, 47, 64–67, 78, 79, 95,

106, 108, 119 and n13, 150. See also soccer; Tijuana

St. John, Rachel, 18
stadium, represents South, 78
status symbol: education as, 66, 152; engineer (professional) as, 77, 78; money as, 104–5;

visa as, 7–8, 30, 33, 34, 133–34, 164–65, 169. See also elitism; visa(s)

stereotypes: of gringos, 77; Mexican, 14–15n25, 50, 139; of poor people, 187; in Tijuana, 7.

See also poor people

sticker, as token, 181–82 and fig. 6.1. See also fetish; fetishism; identification (ID)
subjectivity: collective, 22, 68, 154; of the Informer, 48; and publics, 5 and n6, 9;

third person and, 127, 135–36; of United States, 169. See also I/I’s 

success: in getting visa, 163. See also visa(s)

 

Taussig, Michael, 143, 173, 183
Texas, annexed by United States, 13
they say. See dicen
third person (in grammar): "I" becomes, 121–22, 134; becomes "us," 119; as distance

of hearsay public, 23, 56, 119, 121; dwelling in, 131; as earwitness, 124;
embodies subjectivity, 48, 127; "not really a person," 22, 125; as witness (testis),
123–25. See also dicen (they say); hearsay public; I/I’s; us; we (pronoun)

Tijuana, xii–xiii; as American Dream, 97, 107; anomie in, 102–3; capitalist origins of, 99,

         118; and Ciudad Juárez, 7n8, 18–19; colonias populares (working class districts) of, 89;

        country club in, 91–93, 109, 110–11, 121 (see also elitism); —, accessibility of, 123, 129;

        —, description of, 123, 128,130, 131; —, dress, sartorial, in, 129–30; —, members of, 130–31;

        —, parallels with border, 111, 134; as criminal hideout, 103; and democracy, 107, 148;

        demographics of, 118–21; differentiation from southern Mexico ("the South"), 18, 19, 47,
        64–65, 150 (see also South, the); districts of, 18, 88–93 and fig. 3.1; documented vs.

        undocumented, 49–50, 51; dress (sartorial) in, 108; drug traffickers in, 91 and n4, 109–10

        and n31; electoral fraud in, 73; fiction inhabits, 112; floating population in, 100–101; as

        frontier society, 98, 107; geography of, 18; high income in, 10n15, 88, 89, 91–92; indifferent

        to appearances, 109; as internal other, 18; La Chapu (wealthy district of), 88, 89, 92; as lawless,

        150, 159; "legitimate violence" in, xi; map of, 89 and fig. 3.1; me consta of, 161; as Mexico,

        119–20, 119–21, 121; Mexico as, 118, 119; middle-class section of, xii, 72, 161; as midpoint between
        United States and "South," 16; migrant workers and, 100; military checkpoints in, 178–79;
        old families of, 53–68 passim, 105, 118; police practices in, 174n5, 177–79 (see also border;
        violence); printed word in, 58; right to represent, 45–46, 57; stereotyped, 7; as "supplement,"
        18, 120; as target of vituperation, 17, 18, 19; two publics in, 6, 10, 23, 35, 67, 77, 78, 80; 
        undocumented people in, 175; and upward mobility, 99–102; wages in, 101–2; "we" of, 119;
        wealth of commodities in, 102. See also border; clase media (middle class); elitism; Immigrants'

        Rights Day(s), 2006; mobility, upward; pueblo

Tijuanense/tijuanenses: challenged from "below," 67; as "everything good," 65, 66; privileges of, 112;

       society described, 130. See also clase media; elitism; Tijuana
Tlatelolco, massacre at (1968), 147
tokens, 179; business card as, 184–90 and fig. 6.2; and ID, 184, 189n18; sticker as, 181–82 and fig. 6.1.

        See also fetish; fetishism; identification (ID)

Trilling, Lionel, 173
Turner, Frederick Jackson: eulogy to U.S. frontiersman, 98; on freeholders, 98–99

 

United States: access to, 81, 166; —, Dara’s (SENTRI), 171–72; —, failure to obtain, 164–68;

—, success in obtaining, 163; concern with authenticity, 173; as elites, 126;
as fetish, 167, 168, 169, 173; influence on Tijuana, 108, 112; as legitimizer, 163; materialistic

lure of, 169; and Mexico, 4, 13, 16, 50, 51, 76, 77, 81, 85, 126–27; on Mexico (2000–2010),

149–50; opposition to Mexican immigration in nineties, 139, 174n5; as patron (dubious),

174; permanent residency in, by Mexicans, 132; power of, 77, 112, 168–69; visa to travel to,

161–69, 190. See also border; Line, the; Mexico; visa(s)

upper class (clase mas alta), 105. See also aristocracy; gente decente
Urban, Greg, 37
us (pronoun), 14, 18, 126; Americans as, 17; elitist use of by professional, 80; vs. "them"

(undocumented immigrants), 40, 50; true pueblo as, 11, 15. See also pronouns; pueblo;
we 

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 51

 

Van Gennep, Arnold, 173
Venezuela, independence movement in, 72, 107
Vila, Pablo, 4
Villarreal (Tijuanese old family), 54–56, 61, 63–65, 118
violence, xi, 16; at border, 174–75; Dorotea’s memories of, 180; in Mexico, 149, 151;

          of police, 11n17; from United States, 167; in Venezuela, 72

visa(s), viii, 33–34; as fetish, 15, 81, 112, 171–73; interview to obtain, 161–69; as

middle-class "I," 173; necessary in United States, 190; and right to cross border,
46n24; as status symbol, viii, 7–8, 30, 33, 34, 133–34, 164, 165; as supplement, 172.
See also border; laser visa; passing

 

wages: in Tijuana, 81, 101–2. See also money; Tijuana; wealth
wall: and Port, border as, 173; as symbol of class division, 92, 110–12; visa as, 173
Warner, Michael, 6, 8n10
we (pronoun), viii, 4, 6–7, 17, 23, 119, 126, 136, 165; confrontation between disparate,

          42–45, 158; crystallized on 5/1/2006 (Immigrants’ Rights Day), 32–35; in Declaration

         of Independence, 37, 47, 77; documented and undocumented, 51; in liberalism, 21;

         in mass media and in person, 21; of clase media and pueblo , 17, 2, 9, 12; national, 125;

         obfuscation of, 38; vs. them (elite vs. poor), 46, 81; — (soccer fans), 77; of Tijuana, 119;

         United States as, 51, 126–27; various articulations of, 32–52. See also clase media; elitism

wealth, 104–5. See also elites; money
Weber, Max, 105
Weber, Samuel, 15 and n24
witness: "I" of, 124; meaning of, 123. See also earwitness
Wolf, Eric, 183
workplace, in Tijuana: employees in, seeking visas, 161–69; social structure of, 75–85, 84–85.

            See also visa(s)

World Bank, 148

 

you (pronoun): generalized, 120, 121; and I, 134, 158. See also I/Is; language; pronouns; third

            person; we (pronoun)

 

Zacatecas, 116
Zapatistas, 47, 48n26
Zeta (newspaper), 206-9. See also mass media; newspaper(s)
Žižek, Slavoj, 179n9